Living As Though There Is a Tomorrow #96

Paths and Choices:  Choosing Our Relationship with Nature  8.1.4B

“We grieve only for what we know” [Aldo Leopold, “July,” A Sand County Almanac].  We know – do we grieve?  Do we feel anything?  Can we use both our heads and our hearts?

One direction this leads is the question of duty.  Once we have facts and understand their meaning, how should we apply them?  What do the facts and interpretations mean to us?  What does it mean to be dependent on the processes of life?  Do we have a duty to stop doing harm to ourselves?  More important perhaps, do we have a duty to stop sending the “intergenerational remote tyranny” of our harmful choices out into the future?

This then leads us to the principle of love and what E.O. Wilson calls biophilia, the love of life.  We do usually love ourselves and our group, our children and our grandchildren.  We do sometimes love other humans, both neighbors and strangers.  But do we love life?  The processes of life are complex and diverse, often chaotic, even uncontrollable.  Can we find it in ourselves to love life?

Our natural tendency is to prefer stability and control so much that we are willing to use any amount of power, any mechanism or force, any violence to defend ourselves against nature’s constant motion.  Historically, this is for good reason because over millennia humans have struggled to survive and thrive.  “Nature” has sometimes seemed to be not only our greatest benefactor, our Mother Earth, but also our worst enemy.  The chaos of living needed to be conquered, defeated, controlled, or smothered for the sake of the future.  But now in the modern world our powers of death are so great that we are straining at the circles of life itself.  It appears that we would rather die in the collapse than have peace.  Loving life is hard for us on many levels.

We need to decide what we believe about this.  If we do finally break down the circles of life and interdependency, what will our future become?  Believing that we have the freedom and responsibility to choose moral Growth rather than moral Decay puts a heavy burden on us.  It is easier to be passive, awaiting the fate that someone else will construct for us.  It is also tempting to fall back on our passion for power and self-will.

Creating the future by choice using our reason, duty, love, and belief is possible.  We have minds for reason, for knowing, and for interpreting.  We have hearts to apply our duty and love.  We have spirits and energy for belief.  Do we have the courage to choose life and its processes?

Phyllis Ballata

Without Words We Cannot Think

“We can be ethical only in relation to something we can see, feel, understand, love, or otherwise have faith in. . . . The evolution of a land ethic is an intellectual as well as emotional process. . . . The mechanism of operation is the same for any ethic: social approbation for right actions: social disapproval for wrong actions.  By and large, our present problem is one of attitudes and implements.  We are remodeling the Alhambra with a steam-shovel, and we are proud of our yardage.”  Aldo Leopold (1887-1948), “The Land Ethic,” A Sand County Almanac with Essays on Conservation from Round River (1949)

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Living As Though There Is a Tomorrow #95

Paths and Choices:  Choosing Our Relationship with Nature  8.1.4a

It is never possible to do just one thing.  All things are interconnected–the humans, the animals, the plants, the air, the water, the land itself.  The questions of moral Growth and moral Decay include our relationship with Nature.

As Aldo Leopold states in “The Land Ethic” in A Sand County Almanac:  “No important change in ethics was ever accomplished without an internal change in our intellectual emphasis, loyalties, affections, and convictions.”  We need to use our reason, our sense of duty, our love of life, and our deepest beliefs to choose moral Growth in our interdependency with natural systems of all kinds.  Otherwise we will destroy ourselves.

Our reason includes knowing as well as interpreting the meaning of what we know.  We know nothing in the natural world is linear.  All of nature’s atoms and molecules, organic and inorganic, are part of the cycles of life.  We know that in nature there is no waste.  We know that only man-made atoms and molecules do not fit into the perpetually revolving circles of life.  How should we interpret this?

Barry Commoner’s Four Laws of Ecology from The Closing Circle are justly famous:  (1) Everything is connected to everything else;  (2) Everything must go somewhere;  (3) Nature knows best;  and (4)  There is no such thing as a free lunch.  He added a fifth law later:  If we don’t add something, it isn’t there.

His argument has been taken up by architect William McDonough and chemist Michael Braungart in Cradle to Cradle: Remaking How We Make Things (2002).  They add a technical circle as well as the biological circle and then contend that with proper design humans have the ability to remove waste and deadly toxins that will never fit into a healthy world:  “Poor design . . . reaches far beyond our own life span.  It perpetuates what we call intergenerational remote tyranny–our tyranny over future generations through the effects of our actions today.”  If we recognize this influence and our responsibility for it, we will live and make choices as though there is a tomorrow–then tomorrow will be possible for future generations.

Phyllis Ballata

Without Words We Cannot Think

“Poor design [and moral Decay] . . . . perpetuates what we call intergenerational remote tyranny–our tyranny over future generations through the effects of our actions today.”  William McDonough and Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle: Remaking How We Make Things (2002)

Living As Though There Is a Tomorrow #94

Paths and Choices:  Actual Choices and Consequences   8.1.3

Some of our actual choices can illustrate the power and logic of Decay as we live it everyday.

In the protection of New Orleans, we chose to tightly constrict the river with levees, allowing for no “worthless” floodplains.  We chose to create shipping channels that tore up the swamps and marshes and funneled the dangerous storm surges into the city.  We chose to cut down the forest and cypress groves for immediate gain.  We chose to dismantle the vegetation on barrier islands.  We chose to build many neighborhoods below sea level.  Why?  Because we truly believed in the power and invincibility of our machines.  We believed that our wealth producing processes demanded it.  Especially, we believed in our ability to outsmart and conquer nature.  The natural protections were destroyed.  We didn’t want to know why they worked or how we could cooperate with them.  Our answer was short term, violent, dependent on machines, and centered only on our immediate desire to create wealth and power.  We were left vulnerable and helpless in the end.

We create cities filled with green lawns, golf courses, and swimming pools in the desert.  We pump antique waters out of the aquifers to flush a million toilets and to spray into the air in coordinated fountain, light, and music shows.  We race over the fragile soils, tearing up the ground and muddying the few water holes for “fun.”  Our hotels rise into the sky, but we never think to wonder what happened to the gorgeous hanging gardens of Babylon.

We want cheap fish, so we vacuum everything out of the sea.  We throw back the “worthless” dead by-catch, keeping the quarterly profit to pay the executives, the shareholders, and the loans for even more enormous factory ships to win the competition to suck out the last fish.  We hang death nets for miles. We plow the seabed to either catch or destroy every living thing.  We battle for the right to kill the last remnants.  Meanwhile, we fight against marine reserves that might help replenish a little of the legendary richness of the sea.  Complete harvesting of resources for today is judged more important than sanctuaries for future reproduction.

We want cheap oil for our petroleum culture, so we wage wars.  We want cheap energy so we subsidize nuclear power plants whose waste will be toxic for tens of thousands of years, if it isn’t made into nuclear weapons first.  We reward centralized, highly vulnerable systems in every way politically possible.  We don’t want a village windmill or solar cells on every roof top or a manure digester in every farmyard or garbage-dump methane to create our energy.  And we certainly don’t want efficient transportation–because it is not profitable enough today.  Choosing for today only, we ignore the lessons of the past and the hopes of the future.

We want cheap chicken, beef, and pork, so we create factory farms and drive the integrated, sustainable farmer out of business.  Special subsidies are handed out to corporate investors and absentee landlords.  Special rules allow lakes of manure and acres of animals packed together.  Special corporate protections prevent consumers from knowing where their meat comes from, whether the workers were paid a fair wage and worked in safe conditions, or whether they are eating growth hormones and antibiotics.  The growth of super profits today is more important than the super-infections that will kill us tomorrow.

Phyllis Ballata

Without Words We Cannot Think

“We will have to repent in this generation not merely for the hateful words and actions of the bad people, but for the appalling silence of good people.  Human progress never rolls in on wheels of inevitability; it comes through the tireless efforts of men willing to be co-workers with God, and without this hard work, time itself becomes an ally of the forces of social stagnation.  We must use time creatively, in the knowledge that the time is always ripe to do right.”  Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968), “Letter from the Birmingham Jail”

Living As Though There Is a Tomorrow #93

Paths and Choices: Rational and Practical vs. Irrational and Impractical  8.1.1

What is rational or practical for us depends on how we have been guided by our personal observations.  This includes our experiences and immersion in our personal and social culture.

Moral Decay can appear rational and practical, at least for us personally and for the short term.  *  *  *  Rational and practical choices often encourage looking out for “number one” and so are either self-centered or focused on the immediate advantage of a small, select group. *  *  *   Rational and practical choices are often based on personal or small group gain in power or wealth.   *  *  *  Because rational and practical choices are often intended to increase personal or select group power, the ends naturally seem to justify the means.

Moral Growth can appear irrational and impractical.  *  *  *  Choices that are “other”-centered and focused on the good of the greater community or for the sake of long-term consequences or future life may seem irrational or impractical.  *  *  *  Not getting an obvious or immediate pay back seems irrational or impractical. *  *  *  Being altruistic or not gaining personal or select group advantage appears irrational and impractical, certainly in the short-term.

Creating Our World by Choice  8.1.2

We often choose behavior or attitudes that promote Decay because they help us or our personal select group win an advantage.  Whether the choices are for individualistic, select-group, or authoritarian purposes, Decay can result from what seem to be practical choices.  So why should we choose Moral Growth?

Thinking back over the characteristics of people and societies choosing Decay or choosing Growth [See 2.1.0, 2.1.0A, 2.1.0B], which person would you want to be?  Which society would you want to live in?  What kind of world do you want your children and grandchildren and great-grandchildren to inherit?  We create this world everyday with every choice.

The basic definitions of Decay and Growth are these:  Moral Decay is characterized by an attention to or love of death, force, violence, mechanism, and power and their processes; extreme self-love, self-focus, and absolutism;  parasitic dependence, fear, and authoritarianism.  Moral Growth is characterized by an attraction to or love of life and its processes;  love of others that moves out from the self to neighbors, strangers, and nature or all living things (even to the land, air, and waters);  a willingness to risk action based on independence, freedom, responsibility, and personal choice.

Our every attitude or behavior creates our world for good or ill.

Phyllis Ballata

Without Words We Cannot Think

“It was miraculous.  It was almost no trick at all, he saw, to turn vice into virtue and slander into truth, impotence into abstinence, arrogance into humility, plunder into philanthropy, thievery into honor, blasphemy into wisdom, brutality into patriotism, and sadism into justice.  Anybody could do it; it required no brains at all.  It merely required no character.”  Joseph Heller (1923-1999), Catch-22 (1961)

Living As Though There Is a Tomorrow #92

Paths and Choices:  Social Choices and Consequences 8.0.0

Defining Consequences  8.1.0

Questions about the short-term and the long-term  results of our decisions and actions are commonplace.  We have always asked about gains and losses in any question of competing choices.  We have always considered the cost-benefit analysis.  What we haven’t asked is what is “winning” and what is “losing”–what do these words mean to us?  Who or what wins?  Who or what loses?  Who gains?  Who is harmed?  What is gained?  What is lost?

One of the most striking results of discussions on this topic happened to me in England at an Oxford Round Table.  At the beginning of my presentation on sustainable environmental and humanitarian ethics and before any explanation had been offered, I asked the participants to circle the characteristics of Growth from a list of descriptive words.  Assuming that this meant “Economic or Political Growth,” one of the participants later said that he began circling descriptions like irrational or uncritical thought, exploitation of others, injustice, inequality, cynicism, self-centeredness, manipulation of others.  As soon as the word “Ethical” or “Moral” was added to “Growth”–all of the answers changed to the opposite: critical thought processes and reason, acceptance of useful tasks and equity, joy and gladness, equal justice, freedom to be active and responsible in society, affectionate contacts with others, inner harmony and strength, creativity, independence.

Why would this happen?

“Growth” is a word loaded with conflicting baggage.  We need to closely examine what we mean and what our attitudes and behaviors are doing in the real world.  Also, we need to do this as individuals, as social and cultural groups and communities, and as citizens at all levels.

We need to consciously examine our language and definitions.  We need to ask these questions in terms of the principles of moral Growth and moral Decay because Decay is so attractive to our society’s culture.  We strongly value power and wealth.  Often we see altruism, kindness, generosity, and love as wimpy and weak–for losers.  Both our business analysis and too often our education tell us that all worthwhile things are measurable and quantifiable.  Our religious ethic has many times argued that wealth and power are signs of God’s favor.

“Social Darwinism” (survival of the fittest in the social struggle) may feel morally wrong to us when, or if, we ever think of it, but we usually don’t think about it.  The social winners will naturally be the fittest and the best.  The winners will be the most physically beautiful, the richest, the most powerful, the most celebrated, the most witty and charming.  The result of this natural attraction to the “winners” is that Decay is hard to resist and hard to argue against.  Often the characteristics of moral Growth (valuing living things, love, and responsibility) are not recognized as signs of the best in our society.  We devalue those who don’t have lots of money or the greatest status or the strongest physique or the glibbest tongue.  In doing this we condemn ourselves to choosing ethical death.

Phyllis Ballata

Without Words We Cannot Think

“No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main. . . .  Any man’s death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind, and therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee.”  John Donne (1572-1631), Meditation XVII, 1623

Living As Though There Is a Tomorrow #91

Paths and Choices:  Avoiding Decay in Foreign Aid  7.7.8

Foreign aid that supports or encourages moral Decay includes identifiable and specific dangers for both the giver and the receiver.  But there are equally specific ways to avoid the dangers of Decay.

  • Behaviors based on the principles of moral Decay cannot be rewarded in any way.  Decay will certainly lead to authoritarian power and personal wealth.  But while this often appears to create a “stable” society, it is virtually always a result of the love and promotion of death and violence, discrimination against anyone who is not in the power structure, and a willingness to destroy the productivity and health of the Earth.  When we give aid to those who would reward dependency, fear, threat, a cult of personality, or narrow violent tribalism, we are condemning our children to suffer for our short-sightedness and greed.  We are also promoting the social disintegration of those we are pretending to help.
  • No aid should be given to corrupt, selfish leaders, neither to siphon off for themselves nor to reward their followers and punish their opponents within their countries.  When aid goes to those who misuse it, even the best charitable intentions are crippled.
  • No money should be used for weapons and violence.  Even though we have weapons manufacturers who are eager and willing to supply these forms of manufactured aid, they inevitably lead to an escalation of posturing, threat, and violence.  There is no reason to facilitate Decay in this way.  Often we hear arguments that these forms of aid are for defense.  While this is no doubt sometimes true, it rarely works out in the end, and it supports and encourages all forms of violence, including violence by authoritarian leaders against their own citizens.  Any weapons for defense must be closely monitored and controlled.
  • Whenever corruption is uncovered, aid should be withdrawn from that leader or bureaucracy in order to remove the temptation of Decay and to reduce or eliminate the source of corrupt power.  Coordination of information and investigations with non-governmental organizations, independent religious or charity groups, or impartial observers can help find out the level of efficiency and fairness inside a system.  Any provider of aid who only talks to those in power is bound to fail.
  • A requirement of aid must be justice and equality for all, including gender equity.  Any form of aid that goes to an “old-boys” power group will inevitably lead to moral Decay.  Aid needs to reward personal and local responsibility because those who would enforce their power by threat of ethnic or gender discrimination cannot lead a society to become safe, healthy, productive, free, and responsible.

Walking in Another’s Shoes Thought Experiment 7.7.9

Put yourself in another’s shoes.  Pretend your country was receiving aid from another country.  How would you want the aid money to be spent?  If the aid were in the form of manufactured goods or food, how should it be distributed?  What would your list of priorities be based on?  Who should receive and disburse that money, food, or goods?  Who should decide what the rules are for using aid?  What are the responsibilities of the “giver”?  What are the responsibilities of the “receiver”?

Phyllis Ballata

Without Words We Cannot Think

“The care of human life and happiness, and not their destruction, is the first and only object of good government.”  Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)

Living As Though There Is a Tomorrow #90

Paths and Choices:  Threats to Moral Growth  7.7.6

The use of money for the common good in order to promote a safe and healthy environment, equal justice, and education need to be openly discussed.  But we do need to understand that education for both girls and boys, local independent productivity and responsibility, courage, and freedom to make choices are threats to moral Decay.  Those who are interested in personal power and greed, wherever they may be, will find these forms of Growth to be a threat to their own self-interest and will often use deception or violence to try to beat them down.  Decay hates and fights against moral Growth, so Growth needs to be defended with courage by those who dare.

Dangers of Decay in Foreign Aid  7.7.7

I would argue that foreign aid should not be used to promote or encourage moral Decay.  This means it should avoid supporting attraction to or love of death or violence, extreme self-love, and dependence and fear.  If consciously we ask whether our gifts are going to promote, encourage, or facilitate Decay, maybe we can make wiser choices for the long-term.  Maybe we can help to prevent the destruction, anger, violence, and hate that inevitably goes with moral Decay.

How can we work to prevent the characteristics of Moral Decay?

  • incompetence
  • impotence
  • economic scarcity
  • dishonesty
  • mental/psychological poverty
  • irrational or uncritical thought
  • fanaticism
  • orientation to the past to revenge old wrongs
  • cults of personality or leader worship
  • weakness
  • anxiety
  • stagnation
  • passivity
  • love of or fascination with death and mechanism
  • addiction to thrills or excitement
  • actions for evil
  • despair
  • cynicism
  • fright
  • emptiness
  • emphasis on control of others
  • injustice
  • inequality
  • seeing others as inhuman or inferior
  • unquestioning obedience
  • willingness to do harm
  • exploitation of others
  • unwillingness to struggle with the frustrations of humanness
  • lack of insight
  • cowardice
  • personal moral or ethical paralysis

Making Moral Growth our goal and rejecting Moral Decay and its results is possible only by making conscious and specific choices.

Phyllis Ballata

Without Words We Cannot Think

“[The modern man] assumes that there is nothing that he can do that he should not do, nothing that he can use that he should not use.  His success–which at present is indisputable–is that he has escaped any order that might imply restraints or impose limits. . . . An infinitely greedy sovereign is afoot in the universe, staking his claims.”  Wendell Berry, The Unsettling of America

Living As Though There Is a Tomorrow #89

Paths and Choices:  Suggestions for Foreign Aid  7.7.5

Education and health care are the most valuable forms of aid in order to encourage Growth.  This aid needs to promote independence and community cooperation, personal productivity, a wise attention to the long-term consequences of actions, and a desire for a dignified life of freedom and personal responsibility.  Women and children, not just men, and ordinary citizens, not just leaders, need to be considered and targeted in giving aid to other countries.  The principles of Growth can be taught and modeled if we choose to do so.

Some suggestions:

  • Money and leadership aid should facilitate education, especially for women and children.  This should include teachers’ colleges that can lead to immediate and long-term social growth.  Aid should be given first for universal elementary education and to educate local teachers so that local leadership and responsibility can begin as soon as possible.  It is absolutely essential that both girls and boys have equal access to education.  Building schools out of local materials with local labor and providing teacher training are important concrete actions.  A society with free, educated, and responsible women is inevitably safer, healthier, and more productive than one where women and girls are ignored or oppressed.
  • Aid for basic health care should go to teaching-hospitals to train local nurses and doctors, to local clinics, and to free birth control.  These are crucial to promoting safety, local responsibility, and dignity.  This type of aid reduces anxiety and dependence and promotes willingness to look to the future with courage and confidence.
  • Aid needs to provide for a local sense of self-sufficiency and useful care-taking.  This means facilitating safe water supplies and basic sanitation, sustainable and organic agriculture, local markets and trade, self-governance, and a dignified life under a local system of fair laws and equal justice.  Education for local control and maintenance is necessary for these systems.  Imposing an alien industrialized, potentially toxic system of agriculture and trade for our own gain is deadly.
  • It is increasingly obvious that local energy production is essential.  Small-scale wind, roof-top solar, farmyard bio-digesters, or ethanol from waste must be matched to local technical education and mechanical skills so that citizens can personally maintain and eventually invent appropriate energy production.  Independence and local productive living are the key results.
  • Any aid must result in freedom and self-determination for both women and men.  Local citizens need support in understanding their real choices and in exerting their own will and effort.  Any aid which creates dependence on outside mechanisms or on authoritarian leaders, which reduces local control of productivity, or which prevents free choices and personal responsibility cannot result in moral Growth.

What are your suggestions for helping in the world over the long-term?

Phyllis Ballata

Without Words We Cannot Think

“Control over the questions means control over the agenda of discussion.”  William Devall, Simple in Means

 

Living As Though There Is a Tomorrow #88

Designing Foreign Aid Thought Experiment  7.7.3

  • From your perspective, how should we spend our foreign aid dollars? 
  • If you were designing or voting on foreign aid expenditures, how would you design the system and make choices? 
  • What would your priorities be since there are bound to be limits to how much aid is available? 
  • If we give foreign aid, should we expect something in return? 
  • What should the result of foreign aid be? 
  • Should foreign aid be based on reward and punishment?

Paths and Choices:  Foreign Aid for Growth  7.7.4

Based on the principle of Growth, I would argue that the best use of foreign aid is to promote and encourage the characteristics of Growth: attraction to and love of life, love of others moving from self to neighbors, strangers, and nature or all living things, and a willingness to risk standing for independence and freedom.  If we ask whether our gifts are going to create the characteristics of Growth, perhaps we can make wiser choices for the long term good.  We can promote a healthier world and ethically stronger and more productive people everywhere.

How can our gifts create . . . . 

  • independence
  • individual productive activity
  • economic sufficiency
  • mental/psychological health
  • thoughtfulness
  • objectivity
  • rational judgments and critical thinking
  • awareness of reality
  • acceptance of truths that are valid for all peoples
  • orientation to the present and future while understanding the past
  • integrated personalities
  • intellectual growth
  • love for the processes of life that involves both feeling and thinking
  • service to and defense of life
  • joy and gladness
  • warm and affectionate contacts with others
  • freedom
  • lack of threats
  • inner harmony and strength
  • stimulating and interesting life
  • equal justice for all
  • dignified lives without fear or anxiety
  • freedom to be active and responsible in society
  • basic security
  • original and adventurous intelligence and character
  • a concern for the common good
  • acceptance of useful tasks and equity in doing them
  • acceptance of the risks and power of responsible choices
  • helpfulness
  • understanding of realistic alternatives and the consequences of choices
  • imagination of the possibilities for good
  • willingness to struggle with the frustrations and burdens of humanness
  • fortitude
  • insight
  • self-confidence
  • integrity
  • courage

Phyllis Ballata

Without Words We Cannot Think

“In our every deliberation, we must consider the impact of our decisions on the next seven generations.”  The Great Law of the Haudenosaunee (the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy)

Living As Though There Is a Tomorrow #87

Paths and Choices:  Foreign Policy  7.7.0

What is the purpose of our foreign policy?  Does this seem like a ridiculous question?  What are we doing in the world and why?  Often leaders or professional experts have precise answers to this, but citizens are imagining some entirely different purpose for those choices.  Because we do not discuss this honestly, all of us, both leaders and citizens, are often shocked, amazed, chagrinned, even afraid of the results of our own behaviors.

Policies Leading to Decay  7.7.1

If our policy is based on Decay, primarily short term advantage, immediate power, and the generation of wealth for ourselves, then we are often sucked into discrimination against the very people our democratic or humanitarian principles would normally support.  On the one hand, perhaps our policy is nakedly and purposefully based on Decay, and we are just not admitting it to ourselves.  When we act on principles of Decay, we find ourselves in violent power conflicts of tribalism and class.  We are lost in false patriotism that hides the truth of our own actions from us.  The promotion of personal power and wealth becomes entangled with national priorities, dragging all of us into a swamp.  We cannot extricate ourselves from this swamp without facing an intense national crisis, soul searching, embarrassment, and even humiliation.  We are ashamed (or should be ashamed) because we know that we have been caught in a conflict or power play when we should have known better.  We recognize we should have chosen more wisely.  But the Decaying power of the tribe or the fatherland or blind patriotism or raw violence has overthrown the principle of Growth.

On the other hand, our policy could be based on promoting long term good both for ourselves and for others.  Then we would support individual productivity and dignity for all.  We would encourage local responsibility and leadership for Growth.  But we would ask different questions and use different priorities in deciding our policies.  The principles of Growth would probably change our choices and behaviors in significant ways.  They probably would change our choice of friends and enemies and would change our use of foreign aid.

Imagining Foreign Aid Thought Experiment  7.7.2

Where do you imagine our foreign aid goes?  What is our nation’s definition of “aid”?  Is it cash or raw materials or manufactured goods or services?  What would the difference be among these kinds of aid?  Who do you imagine receives aid when it is sent somewhere?  How do you imagine the receiver uses our aid within his or her country?  Do you think this is monitored in some way?  Find out what really happens to our foreign aid in a place that you are interested in.

Phyllis Ballata

Without Words We Cannot Think

“Satisfy everyman’s need, not everyman’s greed.”  Sunderlai Banuguna, theme of the Chipko movement in India